Climate Change

This page brings together the shortest, clearest and most authoritative information about our predicament that I can find, and our ways out of it … except that we have left action so late that we will never be able to go back to a pre-1950 climate.

It supersedes an older page on this site called “Climate Change References” which had become embarrassingly out of date. That is a common problem with anything to do with climate, since the science is new and is developing very quickly while the effects of global warming are also new and are (sadly) growing just as quickly. It means that any data or analysis more than ten years old has probably been superseded.

Climate Change: what do we know? How do we know?

NASA: Evidence, causes, effects, consensus and FAQ’s –

Bureau of Meteorology: State of the Climate, 2018 –

Climate Council: global temperature change visualisation –

Climate Change and Extreme Weather Events

James Hansen, one of the world’s leading climate scientists, told us in 2011 that global warming was “loading the climate dice”, making extreme weather events both more common and more extreme. Here are a quick introduction  and a more technical introduction to his work.

Debunking 25 Arguments Against Climate Change

Climate Council: a series of mythbusting articles – – some topical (e.g. bushfires).

The Logic of Science: debunking briefly –

Disinformation campaigns

A good, concise introduction on The Conversation to the ongoing disinformation campaigns on fossil fuels, tobacco, pesticides and more –

Disinformation database on Desmog Blog: look up individuals or organisations –

A classic study which turns up every time this topic is mentioned is Merchants of Doubt by Oreskes and Conway (2010), reviewed by The Ecologist here. My summary of it, with more links, is here.

carbon crunch Figueres
The carbon crunch (from Figueres et al, 2017)

Drawdown offers a  summary of solutions to the problem of reducing atmospheric CO2, ranked by their potential to help. Each solution reduces greenhouse gases by avoiding emissions and/or by sequestering carbon dioxide already in the atmosphere.

Tipping Points in society may be as important as the tipping points in the environment. Vox explores some of them here.

Carbon Brief shows that the Paris target of limiting warming to 1.5C is slipping out of reach. (it already looked very difficult to achieve eight years ago).

Energy Costs (Australia, 2019): “With all subsidies taken out, solar PV and wind wipe the floor with gas, coal and nuclear. Levelised cost of solar and wind is about $50 per megawatt hour, half that of gas and coal’s $100 per megawatt hour even without a carbon price. Nuclear is way off the money, priced anywhere between $250 and $330 per megawatt hour.”

(Global, 2020) Energy firms urged to mothball coal plants as cost of solar tumbles – companies could save billions as well as curbing carbon emissions.

(Historical) The Changing Global Market for Australian Coal – Reserve Bank of Australia, 2019. Thorough.

Electric Vehicles vs the rest: “over its whole lifecycle, the electric car would still be responsible for 80% of the emissions of the petrol car.

Eating for the Planet

My own overview at and its follow-up at


It has become increasingly apparent that modern capitalism (aka hyercapitalism, neoliberalism) is incompatible with the health of the living world (including us). The IMF has recently warned of the dangers and business groups are taking action although, as always,more needs to be done.

Visions of possible futures

‘Air is cleaner than before the Industrial Revolution’: a best case scenario for the climate in 2050
and ‘The only uncertainty is how long we’ll last’: a worst case scenario for the climate in 2050 by Christiana Figueres and Tom Rivett-Carnac, architects of the Paris climate accords, in The Guardian.

And remember…

Pett cartoon - what if it's a hoax

Supplementary resources

The Global Economy Is a Ponzi Scheme as Joe Romm noted more than ten years ago – – and a group of economists including Stiglitz said in 2013 – – and it’s going to collapse sooner or later. Managing the crash to make it as slow as possible, so that we have more time to adjust, may be the best we can do.

Methane – an overview in the light of new science:

Gas as a “transitional” fuel. In a word, no; in more detail –